10 anti-item songs

One of the most-talked about issues when it comes to women in Hindi films is the item song. But women in film songs don’t just have to be the typical item girl there to titillate the audience and serve the male gaze.

I have already talked about the importance of songs in a couple of films discussed already, the song “London Thumakda” in “Queen” as one of the subversions of expectations and film conventions and the song “Ooh La La Tu Meri Fantasy” in “The Dirty Picture” as an example of Vidya Balan’s use of comedy in a film that is at its essence, a tragedy.

Songs in several other heroine-oriented films have equally presented different sides to women through music. I’ve picked 10 of the most interesting below. Watch out for a few “angry young women” in particular!

  1. Mardaani Anthem – Mardaani

A song with an explicit women’s empowerment message – this “anthem” addresses the subject matter of the film (child trafficking) but from a position of genuine strength and standing up to injustice.

Below is the link of the lyrical verison of the song – where we see Rani as Shivani Shivaji Roy in action in the instrumental parts of the song, and the listener is encouraged to sing along to the powerful lyrics during the sung parts. Join in:

“Aaj se aab se

Aan meri main tumko na chhoone doongi

Jaan ko chaahe chhalni kardo

Maan ko na chhoone doongi”

  1. High Heels Te Nachhe – Ki & Ka

A fun, catchy song that could somehow fit in almost any other film, but stands out due the plot of the film it’s in (Ki & Ka), that is a simple romantic comedy that’s also subversively progressive in terms of gender to a point not just beyond Bollywood, but unlike most mainstream cinema globally (for discussing in another post).

However the video song achieves the same in a few short minutes through the choreography and costumes switching up expectations in terms of gender roles gently and humorously.

Watch below:

  1. Ghani Bawri – Tanu Weds Manu Returns

A popular song that accompanied an ever more popular film – Tanu Weds Manu Returns, plays up perceptions of independent and passionate women as “crazy” by reclaiming the title.

Interestingly, in Tanu Weds Manu Returns, as in the first film, Ranaut’s character Tanu is not demonised for being this supposedly “crazy” woman, in fact she becomes our heroine. It is not whether she should change her behaviour or not that is the question, but rather if Tanu and Manu are a well-matched couple or not, and if they can make their relationship work with such different personalities.

Ranaut’s dance performance here is also unusual – she is being shown as watched by a male, indeed her ex-husband Manu as he is about to remarry, but she is trying to communicate a message to him of strength, independence and defiance rather than serving his sexual desires. The whole dance is far from a pop song in the middle of the film, as Ranaut uses it as an opportunity to convey her character’s feelings in the moment and as such, it manages to move the plot forward and help the audience better understand and relate to Tanu. We understand her anger and pain in one.

  1. Ziddi Dil – Mary Kom

A montage training scene turned video song with a message of determination, Ziddi Dil is a stand out song from the movie Mary Kom. The picturization of the song meanwhile shows what makes Mary Kom such a compelling real life sports star and biopic lead – that is, her contrasting feminity and roles as daughter, mother and wife; and a driven, determined five-time boxing world champion.

At this point in the film, MC Mary Kom is yet to become a wife and mother of three. Rather she is still a young girl and despite Priyanka Chopra already having been in the industry for more than 10 years at the time of shooting Mary Kom, manages to excude the youthful energy of a teenager

We see facets to Kom’s all round personality – she is a simple farm girl helping out at home, a devout Christian, lives in the picturesque Manipur, is committed to her training, and even so in the face of her parents’ concerns. All these facets comfortably co-exist, and the song pays tribute to Mary Kom’s drive and determination. At the end of the song, we see both the pay-off in terms of her victories in the ring, and the cuts and blisters she suffers through as a result:

  1. Rajj Rajj Ke – Akira

With lead actress Sonakshi Sinha also doubling up as a playback singer in this track, the song sees Sinha as a rock star.

We are also treated to clips of Sinha in full action star mode as Akira and the mood and lyrics of the song help to strengthen our understanding of her character and her destructive and vengeful mindset in the movie.

The vocal performance shows a very different side to Sinha as a singer than her pop hit “Aaj Mood Ishqholic Hai” and positions Sinha as the quadruple threat – acting prowess, popular dancer, and now fully fledged singer and action heroine.

  1. Jashn – Bobby Jasoos

A joyful, feel good song from the underrated film Bobby Jasoos, this sees “The Dirty Picture” star in a totally different avatar.

This is an Eid celebration dance song very different from one you would find in Salman Khan’s latest holiday release.

  1. Chhil Gaye Naina – NH10

In NH10’s “Chhil Gaye Naina” we see Anushka Sharma in a similar mode to Sinha’s Akira in Rajj Rajj Ke, in this case accompanied by the powerful vocal performance of playback singer Kanika Kapoor.

The track also does well at setting the mood of the film, building tension and suspense, and helps understand the fear, pain and vulnerability felt by Sharma’s character Meera, the feelings that will drive her violent fightback against her attackers.

Sharma puts in another acting performance whilst lipsynching to the track and we get a microcosm of Meera’s character arc in NH10 itself through the less than 3 minute song.

  1. Revolver Rani – Revolver Rani

Another track where the avatar of the lead actress (this time Kangana Ranaut) is wholey different to as we either know her best (a la “Queen”) or have seen her before.

This Western style film with Kangana as a larger than life cowgirl-style politican Alka Singh puts a woman in a position of power, and portrays a grey anti-heroine role and we can sense the black comedy of the film even within the song itself and its picturisation.

  1. Sava Dollar – Aiyyaa

In this song at the beginning of Rani Mukherji’s film “Aiyyaa”, Mukerji as her character Meenakshi in full fantasy mode due to her dreams of making it as a film heroine.

The song pastiches Hindi film song and dance, but with a tenderness only possible by a true lover of the genre. From within the film itself, we understand this is purely Meenakshi’s perspective,  living out her dreams, rather than for the pleasure of any male onlooker.

Life as a Hindi film heroine is portrayed through Meenakshi’s eyes as the epitomy of success, glamour and power, but seems possible to her as she is shown as a dreamer who will not accept narrow expectations of her.

“Haan mamuli nahi main ladki

Khole sapno ki khidki

Apni thandi duniya ko

Maine sapne pe sekha”

  1. Hamari Atariya – Dedh Ishqiya

A list of Hindi video songs could not leave out the iconic dancer in Madhuri Dixit. Whilst there were a few options to pick of hers (“Aaja Nachchle”, “Dheemi Dheemi Si”, “O Re Piya” and “Gulaabi” in a non-dancing avatar – just from the movies “Aaja Nachchle” and “Gulaab Gang”), her performance in Dedh Ishqiya stands out.

Whilst the song and dance of “Jagaave Saari Raina” is notable for its elegance, I have left this out of the list as within the moment in the film, it is literally viewed through the male gaze of Naseeruddin Shah’s character. This plot point becomes more complex later in the film, and overall this film is unusual and provocative in several ways that warrant greater analysis generally. However the song sits uneasily within this list for this reason.

Hamari Atariya meanwhile, comes right at the end of the film, when the plot has played out fully and we know the status of Madhuri Dixit’s character Begum Para and Huma Qureshi as Munira. We see two women dancing together but who are not competitors for a man’s affections (a la Madhuri herself as Chandramukhi with Aishwarya Rai as Paro in “Devdas”, or most recently Deepika Padukone as Mastani and Priyanka Chopra as Kashibai in the song “Pinga” from “Bajirao Mastani”).

In this song then, we see Madhuri and Huma dance elegantly and defiantly, accompanied by a group of young girls all dancing in sync. It is a genuinely wonderful song and dance that can be enjoyed for its own merit.

Neerja (2016)

I chose to start this blog with a piece on the movie “Neerja”. Why?

Well, Neerja is box office gold in 2016, one of the biggest movies released and the highest grossing with a female protagonist. It sees India’s “number 1 fashionista”, the star kid Sonam Kapoor, in a totally new avatar, producing almost certainly her finest performance to date. It received rave reviews and most likely will be a critical darling at awards shows rewarding the best films of 2016.

BUT actually I started with this film for none of these reasons.

Ultimately, I chose “Neerja” to begin a discussion of “heroine-oriented” cinema as it is a rendering of a true story of a real life heroine – an inspiration for women and men, boys and girls and for Indians, Pakistanis, Americans and Brits alike. Neerja is the story of the 22-year old flight attendant, Neerja Bhanot, who saved the lives of 359 people following an attempted hijacking on Pan Am Flight 73 on the 5th September 1986 at Jinnah International Airport in Karachi on a stopover between Mumbai, Frankfurt and New York.

Portrayals of such heroines are important in all kinds of media, and if a reason was needed to justify why films with women protagonists are important, then it’s for reasons such as the need to tell stories such as Neerja’s. Critiques of “women-orientated” films (the same applies for literature and television) can often be that they are not serious and inherently superficial. This is a whole other discussion for another time. Nevertheless, it provides a context where it is particularly interesting to witness Sonam Kapoor, arguably one of the actresses in Bollywood today most commonly maligned in such a way, to lead this super-hit movie and for it to not only address a serious matter, but to demonstrate that stories of and about women are important to be heard.

SPOILERS ahead – if you don’t like them, I highly recommend you go watch the movie, and then come back. Trailer is below.

“Neerja” tells a compelling story, made gripping through strong performances and quality direction, despite most audience members likely being already aware of the outcome. Throughout the movie, Neerja is presented as a positive archetype for a number of different roles – and does a good job of inspiring without setting unobtainable expectations that depictions of “flawless” or “superhuman” women in media can sometimes create. I have described examples of some of these below.

Neerja as a Bollywood fan – like the audience herself

Neerja opens with scenes showing her personality, family life and portraying her as a “normal” young woman that the audience can relate to, in spite of her courageous and ultimately, tragically sacrificial actions that will follow. Her interest in Bollywood automatically connects her with the audience whilst her Rajesh Khanna fandom and declaration of his superiority as B-Town’s top hero over Dilip Kumar or Amitabh Bachchan mirrors the debates today between fans of the three Khans. That her mother is played by a frequent co-star of Khanna at the time, Shabana Azmi, perhaps only adds to this connection between Neerja herself and the Bollywood viewer.

Neerja as a “normal” young girl

The film passes the Bechdel test within the first 15 minutes, in a charming scene between the convincingly sleepy Neerja (played with the familiar youthful energy Sonam Kapoor brought to other heroine-oriented films such as Aisha and Khoobsurat, but also a seriousness and steeliness that has been less at the forefront of her work to date), and Neerja’s mother Rama (played by the iconic Shabana Azmi). The two discuss Neerja’s job and her mother’s worries related to her safety, which is laughed off by the pair with an intense foreshadowing of the tragic events to come.

Neerja as a girlfriend and a wife

Neerja is shown to have a relationship with Jaideep, who drives her to the airport, and reflects on her brief, and failed, arranged marriage. A flashback scene shows her husband berating her for ordering take-out and her mother for not having taught her to cook, accusing her of not understanding the meaning of “hard work”. It paints a rather unflattering picture of him and their marriage, especially in light of the heroics of the last few hours of Neerja’s life which will form the bulk of the film.

A brief scene presenting her “pious” vegetarianism in contrast to her husband’s aggressive meat eating is perhaps one of the most contrived moments in the movie, but it soon has greater significance as she is prevented from socialising or being presented publicly among his friends, being told to literally stay in the kitchen (!) and clean up after him.

Her isolation in Qatar and due to the break she is forced to take from working outside the home (in this case – her modelling career) is ruptured through a the supportive words of a progressive father who prioritises her well-being and happiness and teaches her to value strength and bravery over submissiveness and obedience.

This contrast of Neerja as a girlfriend, in a relationship she has chosen and supported in her work (presented positively) and as a wife in an arranged marriage where she is relegated to the kitchen (presented negatively) is a progressive view of the role of women, and given the truth in the story, legitimate, if somewhat simplified if taken as a broader message. However, if the message can be taken simply that women should be free to make their own choices, including in matters of marriage and career, and are not simply cooks and cleaners for their male spouses, this message is to be welcomed in the context of this movie celebrating life of, and commemorating the tragic heroism of, a truly brave woman.

Neerja emerges as a heroine

Rama is shown to have a mother’s instinct that something has happened, and when she is called about the hijacking by Harish, Neerja’s father, a journalist who hears about the situation through his work, they are both clearly extremely concerned but also try to maintain composure. The viewers can see this steeliness in Neerja’s reactions such as when the plane is first hijacked – her initial shock at the sound of shooting, her curious walk towards danger, her command to the rest of the cabin crew to close the door to prevent them entering (which is almost successful), and critically her alerting of the pilots of the fact that the plane has been hijacked, which critically gives them enough time to escape and prevents them from being forced to fly. Whilst a crucial act towards saving not only the pilots’ lives but also, ultimately that of the majority of the passengers, this act forces the young Neerja to take on the responsibility of becoming the most senior cabin crew member on a plane attacked by a terrorist group.

The alerting of the pilots and their escape also draws attention to Neerja and causes her to become somewhat of a target. She does not shy away from this however, volunteering to make an announcement on behalf of the hijackers in place of a traumatised colleague. They attempt to identify the radio controller on the plane, but Neerja discourages him from identifying himself in an effort to protect him.

Other key efforts to protect passengers that put her at greater risk include the hiding of American passports after an American passenger is murdered. This traumatic event sees Neerja barely avoid being shot, but after composing herself in the toilet, interspersed with a flashback to an even-more dejected looking Neerja during her brief marriage, when she sought a moment of solace in the bathroom. In the present timeline, she uses this moment of regaining composure to devise the plan to collect and hide the passports.

Neerja as de facto negotiator

Neerja’s compassion is seen extending even to the hijackers themselves, although she never condones their actions. These include from as early as her first announcement to the passengers on their behalf; to her plan to collect and hide the American passports under a rouse of giving out water, when she appeals to them by comparing their “duty” and “job” with her own towards the services of the passengers on the plane. She even attempts this after the auxiliary power expires and the hijackers panic, assuming they are about to be attacked. When this proves futile and they start shooting, Neerja rushes to open the emergency exit as quickly as possible and begin to evacuate the passengers and crew as quickly as possible.

Neerja as a survivor of abuse

Neerja’s bravery is framed as one that has either developed due to being a survivor of abuse, or an inherent part of her character that enabled her to escape her marriage.

The turning point where she is seen to realise her fighting instinct is shown in another flashback scene where Neerja is back in India with her family. One of her brother’s is notably supportive and her father Harish is particularly quiet and keen to avoid discussing why she is at home in India.

Her mother Rama is shown as less supportive and rather encourages Neerja to stick with the marriage, and persist in her attempts to adapt, somewhat insensitively dismissing her unhappiness as a burden that all married women need to take on. Rama’s stance turns however once Neerja reveals letters written by her husband to Harish, her father, detailing his dowry-related complaints, and recalling his psychological and even physical abuse towards her, and she appears to recognise this is not an acceptable situation. Sonam gives a convincing delivery whilst reading the letters, with the summary conclusion that “she is of no use to me” encapsulating how Neerja has been disparaged through a form of abuse and that intends to imply that therefore “she is of no use [whatsoever]”. Ultimately however, this narrative is not just challenged for its offensiveness, but in light of Neerja’s heroism, also absurd to even suggest.

This scene is also important as it shows that it is often other women who justify or seek to normalise abuse – and commonly in the name of love and support of a close family member. This means that the fact that Neerja’s insistence on escaping her life in Qatar and returning to India, and indirectly asserting her own worth and value in spite of being “of no use”, is ultimately heard and acknowledged by her family, especially her mother, all the more important. This serves as an assertion that the happiness of ALL women is important and ALL women have use and value.

Neerja as the romantic heroine

Curiously, although perhaps unsurprisingly, Neerja is also painted as a romantic heroine within the movie. A common trope of Hindi cinema, particularly of the last 20 years, is the romanticisation of “love marriage” for an audience that still overwhelmingly (although in decreasing frequency in some urban areas) continues to practice arranged marriage as the primary establishment of a relationship between romantic partners. However, romance developing after marriage is rare enough to be be an outlier among the majority of Hindi films released in recent years (some examples of such outliers that spring to mind would be Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam, Namastey London, Rab Na Bana Di Jodi, and most recently, Dum Laga Ke Haisha).

Given the facts around Neerja’s failed arranged marriage, the idealisation of a romantic relationship established prior to marriage, as she has with Jaideep, is perhaps unspectacular. What is more interesting in this regard is the prominence and significance this is given within the movie, especially giving the thriller aspect of the hijack and the inspiration of her heroics. This trope is used predominantly to emphasise loss and tragedy, with Neerja’s acceptance of her role as the romantic heroine coming at a point where she appears to have accepted her likely demise – she opens the birthday letter from Jaideep prematurely as she recognises she may not be able to wait until her birthday. Her tears of joy are accompanied by a genuine pain that she is unable to fulfil the proposal written within. Neerja’s last smile however is shown whilst in reflecting on this letter and the love it represents.

Jaideep, the supportive and loving husband that can never be, meanwhile, is seen awaiting news whilst sitting in front of a billboard with Neerja as a model. That Neerja is literally modelling bridal gear is a far from subtle nod to the fact that Neerja is being cast as the ultimate bride.

Neerja as Mother India

Neerja’s final actions, also demonstrated in a range of moments throughout the film portray her as a protector of children. She is ultimately shot after returning the line of fire in order to protect and evacuate a group of unaccompanied young children, acting as a human shield. Her last words are to a young boy she acts as a pseudo-mother figure to.

Neerja’s role as an archetypal mother figure plays into a subversion of one of the most famous of all “heroine-oriented” Hindi films, namely, “Mother India”. In this subverted ending however, our “mother to society” self-sacrifices literally, and can only protect “her” children, by being shot herself instead of acting as the shooter.

Neerja’s mother herself has a speech at the end of the movie, reflecting on her loss and on Neerja’s life. This is obviously partially to make best use of a powerhouse acting legend such as Shabana Azmi. But in the context of the film it also works to emphasise Neerja not just as a heroine, but also a more human figure – a daughter, a sister, a fiancé and a friend.

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